No vaccines have been approved for the prevention of COVID-19. There are currently more than 169 candidates undergoing development and 26 in the clinical development stage according to WHO. An ideal vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 would be effective after one or two vaccinations; which would protect target populations such as older adults and those with comorbidities, including immunocompromised individuals; which would confer protection for a minimum of 6 months; and would reduce onward transmission of the virus to contacts.

Top ten Vaccines in later stages of Development

SI. NoCandidateMechanismSponsorTrial Phase
1Ad5-nCoVRecombinant vaccine
(adenovirus type 5 vector)
CanSino BiologicsPhase 3
2AZD1222Replication-deficient viral vector
vaccine (adenovirus from
The University of Oxford, AstraZeneca, IQVIA;
Serum Institute of India
Phase 3
3CoronaVacInactivated vaccine (formalin
with alum adjuvant)
SinovacPhase 3
4mRNA-1273mRNA-based vaccineModernaPhase 3
5No name
Inactivated vaccineWuhan Institute of Biological products;
China National Pharmaceutical Group
Phase 3
Guerin (BCG)
Live-attenuated vaccineUniversity of Melbourne and
Murdoch Children’s Research
Institute; Radboud University
Medical Center; Faustman Lab at
Massachusetts General Hospital
Phase 2/3
7BNT162mRNA-based vaccinePfizer, BioNTechPhase 2/3
8NVX-CoV2373Nanoparticle vaccineNovavaxPhase 2b
9CovaxinInactivated vaccineBharat Biotech; National Institute
of Virology
Phase 2
10No name
Recombinant vaccineAnhui Zhifei Longcom
Biopharmaceutical, Institute of
Microbiology of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences
Phase 2